Stephen Harper’s Petro-State Is Built On Tar Sands
This text first appeared within the Washington Spectator.
Late twenty first-century graduate students of business learning the rising problem of stranded property will nearly actually give attention to the historical past of Canada’s Athabasca Oil Sand (aka tar sands). The case studies they learn will both describe the gradual abandonment of the world’s largest reserve of bituminous crude or they are going to learn concerning the tar sands’ miraculous last-minute escape from changing into the world’s largest stranded asset. For either end result, the turning level they may look again on is nearly now.
In fact, some of Alberta’s crude has made its approach to market, but so much slower than it might have, or was projected to, that producers, refiners, shippers, banks and other traders in tar-sands development are beginning to wonder whether or not they’ve backed a good play by investing over $160 billion to show tar into oil.
So the economic stranding process has already begun. Five global vitality giants–Shell, Whole, Suncor, Statoil and Occidental–have minimize bait on main bitumen deposits in Alberta, in which that they had already invested billions. Suncor has just slashed another billion dollars from its capital spending program and $800 million extra from working expenses. And as oil costs slide decrease, business and investment banks are reconsidering future underwritings. An industry that recently envisioned doubling production over the following 20 years is now taking a look at something closer to the other, a halving of manufacturing or worse in far fewer than 20 years.
American media coverage of the tar sands has centered totally on the approval of the Keystone XL Pipeline, which, if completed, would carry 830,000 barrels of Athabasca crude, every single day, to the world’s largest refining middle close to Houston next to a booming export hub. As a result of American and Canadian politicians and oil execs have lobbied so hard for its approval, People are likely to imagine that building of Keystone will safe the way forward for the tar sands. Not true. To even strategy break-even, at the least four other pipeline routes might be wanted to hold bituminous crude to the world’s market: two to the Canadian west, one to the east and one north. If two or three of those traces are by some means stopped, and that’s fairly likely to occur, the stranding of the tar sands will escalate, Canada will stop being a petro-state, and its business leaders will start their search for one more staple to drive its national economic system.
Staples Economic system
Canada has all the time been what economists name “a staples economy,” reliant virtually utterly on one staple useful resource after another. Fur was adopted by cod, then wheat, potash, minerals, timber, and hydropower. As we speak, Canada’s staple useful resource is carbon, some of which derives from coal however most of it from oil. Oil, in actual fact, represents forty brent crude oil spot price bloomberg ticker six percent of Canada’s commodity manufacturing. Unfortunately, over 90 p.c of its reserves are bitumen, the expensive production of which nets solely 4 percent to Canada’s GDP. But oil represents forty percent of the country’s exports. So the urgency to develop and export the tar-sands oil has grow to be a national priority.
Canada’s brent crude oil spot price bloomberg ticker tar-sands booster-in-chief is Prime Minister Stephen Harper, an Alberta-primarily based petrolero who rose to prominence in politics as Chief Coverage Officer of the Reform Occasion, Canada’s version of the American Tea Social gathering. Based in 1987, Reform merged in 2000 with the floundering Progressive Conservative Social gathering to form a new and nearly unbeatable national coalition calling itself the Canadian Conservative Reform Alliance (after adding “Get together” to its title, it became CCRAP, and was nicknamed “see-crap”). Harper grew to become celebration chief of CCRAP, which has since received two national elections. It is as if Ted Cruz became the Republican entrance-runner and received the White Home twice.
Map by Kevin Kreneck
Once a member of Canada’s Younger Liberals and a supporter of Pierre Trudeau, Harper went west as a younger man, labored in Alberta’s oil fields and followed his father into employment with Imperial Oil, Canada’s second-largest petroleum firm (sixty nine % owned by ExxonMobil). There, like so many other western Canadians, he grew to despise Eastern Canada, reasonably like the scion of a prominent American family moving from Connecticut to Texas. In Calgary, he turned an outspoken and eloquent opponent of Trudeau”s Nationwide Vitality Plan, which seemed set upon nationalizing Canada’s final staple useful resource. Whereas there is still discuss of nationalizing oil and tar-sands oil in Canada, and in some polls a majority of Canadians help the thought, that couldn’t presumably happen with Harper in power.
At the 2012 World Economic Forum, in Davos, Switzerland, Harper announced that the expanded manufacturing and export of tar-sands bitumen was a nationwide precedence. Canada, he predicted, was set to become an energy superpower. In Ottawa, he took fast and aggressive steps to weaken environmental protections just like the Navigable Waters Safety Act, which was hindering pipeline building, and to fast-monitor tar-sands production.
But Harper’s focus remained on Europe, the place in 2012 the European Parliament and member European Union governments were debating phrases of a revised Gas High quality Directive (FQD) and considering an official ban on the import of “dirty fuels” — oil shale, liquid coal and tar sands, all of which have excessive extraction impacts, releasing more greenhouse fuel than standard oil through their “nicely to wheel” life cycle. A Stanford University research that many members of the EU Parliament relied on projected a 23 p.c enhance of lifecycle carbon emissions from tar-sands manufacturing.
Harper and his advisers instantly noticed the hazard of that examine and the disaster a European ban on soiled fuel represented for Canada’s largest new staple. One vote in Brussels might depart the tar sands stranded immediately and endlessly, even when oil producers found a route to the Chinese language market.
Throughout the 2 years leading up to the EU parliamentary vote on the problem, Harper mobilized Canadian oil executives and his cabinet behind a $30 million nation-to-nation lobbying effort. Their first goal was the Stanford research, which they drove into the bottom with their own business-funded studies.
Week after week, planeloads of oil execs and PR flacks crossed the Atlantic, Harper aboard every time he might be, laterally threatening a commerce conflict with Europe if the vote went the fallacious approach. Facet trips have been made to Washington. And members of the European Parliament have been flown to Ottawa and Alberta for gold-plated junkets.
With out Harper’s effort, the Parliament in Brussels would virtually certainly have voted to ban soiled fuels. After two years of intense lobbying, the measure misplaced by a 12-vote margin 337 to 325, with forty eight abstentions. Just a few months later, within the fall of 2014, the primary shipment of tar-sands crude arrived in Europe, with many more to comply with, as a vote on the Fuel High quality Directive is not going to come up again for no less than four years.
Within the meantime, if a couple of EU member nations condemn tar-sands oil, and ban its import, extra small nails might be driven into the tar-sands coffin. And if two of the proposed source-to-port pipelines on the drawing boards are blocked (see map and sidebar right here), more producers and investors will abandon the sands.
If Canada’s tar sands do at some point turn out to be stranded, the equivalent annual emissions of over sixty five coal-fired plants and 50 million passenger automobiles will stay underground. And quite a lot of the credit (or blame) will go to environmental activists, aboriginal communities, litigious farmers and teams like Greenpeace, 350.org, who’ve added to their anti-pipeline advocacy a marketing campaign to stress institutional buyers to divest their “Huge Fossil” holdings. Even earlier than divestment started, nine of 10 tar-sands producers’ stocks had underperformed the market. So they’re susceptible.
Strand Their Capital
In accordance with the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis, a assume tank in Cleveland, the campaigns of environmentalists and native communities have already price tar-sands producers $17 billion. But that has not stemmed the dedication of the North American fossil-gasoline trade to maneuver Athabasca crude to refineries all over the world.
Regardless of the insistence of American Republicans and petroleros that every part rests on completion of Keystone XL, the pipeline means little to the U.S. economic system. In Canada, however, economists estimate that U.S. rejection of the pipeline may value the nation as a lot as $1.7 billion a yr, far more vital than the lack of two or three hundred permanent jobs the pipeline would create in the U.S. And by merely elevating break-even increased than it already is for bitumen producers, stopping Keystone might place the tar sands in far higher hazard of being stranded.
While belongings just like the tar sands needs to be stranded, because mining and burning them will increase the temperature of an already overheated planet a degree or extra, they are more likely to grow to be stranded, because they’re either unable to reach market or have misplaced market value.
The unhappy irony is that earlier than Canada selected tar-sands crude to be its staple export, the country was poised to turn into a serious world contributor to brent crude oil spot price bloomberg ticker wash vitality. It had signed local weather treaties, promoted solar-power, developed hydroelectric energy and had a prosperous renewable-energy trade under sail, for which the nation possessed all the necessary natural and monetary assets. Then one powerful neoliberal free-market zealot determined to double down on high-carbon fuels and announce to the world that tar sands would turn into the subsequent nation-building staple for his nation.
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