Glossary Of Terms [L
Lean NOx Catalyst (LNC) Catalyst designed to scale back nitrogen oxides from diesel or spark-ignited engine exhaust gases underneath net oxidizing conditions, i.e. in the presence of extreme quantity of oxygen.
Mild Duty Vehicle (LDV) A passenger automobile or small truck.
Liquefied Pure Fuel (LNG) Pure gasoline that has been refrigerated to cryonic temperatures the place the gasoline condenses into a liquid.
Liquefied Petroleum Gasoline (LPG) Liquefied Petroleum Gasoline (LPG) is a mixture of low-boiling hydrocarbons that exists in a liquid state at ambient temperatures when beneath moderate pressures (less than 1.5 MPa or 200 psi). LPG is a by-product from the processing of natural fuel and from petroleum refining. Main components of LPG are propane (min. 85% content material in the U.S.), butane and propylene.
Low Emission Automobile (LEV) A automobile that’s certified to satisfy the LEV emission standards set by the California Air Sources Board (CARB).
Nationwide Ambient Air High quality Standards (NAAQS) Ambient standards for six pollutants together with ozone, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, particulate matter, and oxides of sulfur specifically regulated under the U.S. Clean Air Act of 1990. City areas are required to realize attainment with regard to ambient concentrations of these standards pollutants.
Pure Gas (NG) A mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and small portions of various non hydrocarbon elements current within the gas phase or in answer with crude oil in natural underground reservoirs. The primary part of natural fuel is methane.
Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Several air-polluting gases composed of nitrogen and oxygen which play an vital function in the formation of photochemical smog. Nitrogen oxides are collectively known as “NOx”, the place “x” represents a changing proportion of oxygen to nitrogen. Inside combustion engines are significant contributors to the worldwide nitrogen oxide emissions. For the aim of emission rules, NOx is composed of colorless nitric oxide (NO), and the reddish-brown, very toxic and reactive nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Different nitrogen oxides, such as nitrous oxide N2O (the anesthetic “laughing gas”), are not regulated emissions.
NMHC Non-Methane Hydrocarbons.
NMOG Non-Methane Organic Gases.
Nonattainment Area A region that exceeds the U.S. National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for one or more standards pollutants. Such areas, or areas, are required to seek modifications to their State Implementation Plans (SIPs), setting forth an inexpensive timetable using means that are approved by the Environmental Safety Company (EPA) to realize attainment of NAAQS by a sure date. Beneath the Clear Air Act, if a nonattainment space fails to realize NAAQS, the EPA may superimpose a Federal Implementation Plan (FIP) with stricter necessities. Also, the EPA could impose fines, development bans, or lower-offs in Federal grant revenues until the realm achieves relevant NAAQS.
On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) A system on board of the car that displays emission management components and alerts the driver (e.g. by a dashboard light) if malfunctions or emission deterioration happens. The OBD system entails quite a lot of sensors and an information processor, which is typically built-in with the vehicle’s digital management system.
Open Frontal Space (OFA) In monolith catalyst substrates, the part of the total substrate cross-section area which is available for the flow of gasoline. The OFA is continuously expressed as a proportion of the entire substrate cross-section and sometimes also called the substrate void fraction.
Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) Manufacturers of gear (comparable to engines, autos, and many others.) that provide the unique product design and supplies for its meeting and manufacture. OEMs are directly chargeable for manufacturing and modifying the products, making them commercially available, and offering the warranty.
Overhead Cam A camshaft used for working each valves and unit injectors, situated on prime of or throughout the cylinder head. Such camshafts are pushed by a multi-gear geartrain off the crankshaft. They simplify the design of the cylinder head and eliminate pushrods, permitting for much bigger, open intake and exhaust ports and higher respiratory.
Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) A capability of the catalyst washcoat to store oxygen at lean and to launch it at wealthy situation. Usually supplied by cerium oxide (ceria), which oscillates between an oxidized and reduced state, depending on the exhaust gas chemistry. The OSC is a crucial part of three-method catalysts, used to extend the catalyst window.
Oxygenated Gasoline Any fuel substance containing oxygen, such as ethanol, methanol, or biodiesel. Oxygenated gas tends to offer a extra full combustion of its carbon into carbon dioxide (CO2), thereby reducing emissions of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. Oxygenated fuels may result in elevated nitrogen oxides emissions.
Ozone (O3) An oxygen molecule with three oxygen atoms. The stratosphere ozone layer, which is a focus of ozone molecules situated at 10 to 50 kilometers above sea degree, is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Oxygen molecules absorb ultraviolet (UV) light to form ozone which, in turn, decomposes back to oxygen. These processes absorb many of the ultraviolet mild from the solar, shielding life from the harmful results of UV radiation. Ozone is normally current at ground level in low concentrations. In cities the place high stage of air pollutants is present, the motion of the sun’s ultraviolet light can, by a posh collection of reactions, produces dangerous concentrations of the bottom level ozone. The ensuing air pollution is named photochemical smog.
Particulate Matter (PM) Particles formed by incomplete combustion of gasoline. crude oil price live bloomberg Compression ignition (diesel) engines generate considerably increased PM emissions than spark ignited engines. The particles are composed of elemental carbon, heavy hydrocarbons (SOF), and hydrated sulfuric acid (“sulfate particulates”).
Petroleum A generic time period applied to oil and oil merchandise in all kinds. Examples include crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oil, refined petroleum products, and pure gasoline plant liquids.
Polycyclic Natural Matter (POM) A class of air toxics defined within the US Clear Air Act as compounds with a couple of benzene ring and a boiling level of 100°C and higher. Includes practically all of diesel PAH materials.
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) Aromatic hydrocarbons with two or extra (as much as 5 or 6) benzene rings joined in various, roughly clustered types.
Pour Level A measure of the ability of a diesel gas to function below chilly weather conditions. Defined because the temperature at which the amount of wax out of solution is ample to gel the gas when tested beneath commonplace conditions (ASTM D97).
Precombustion Chamber A small, auxiliary combustion chamber related by a slim orifice with the primary chamber. Gas is injected into the prechamber and ignites there, inflicting hot gases to broaden into the primary chamber (cylinder).
Propane (C3H8) A usually crude oil price live bloomberg gaseous straight-chain hydrocarbon. Propane is a colorless paraffinic gasoline that boils at a temperature of -42°C. It’s extracted from pure fuel or refinery gasoline streams.
Pump-Line-Nozzle Gasoline System A gas system utilizing a single injection pump pushed off the geartrain on the front of the engine that also drives the camshaft. The central injection pump feeds a separate injection nozzle situated within the cylinder head above every cylinder. Lines which have to be of precisely equal size link every pump plunger with the associated nozzle. Each nozzle incorporates a needle valve and the orifices which actually handle atomization.
Purge Take a look at A take a look at used to find out if gasoline vapors are correctly drawn from the evaporative canister and the gasoline tank into the engine for combustion. If the purge system is just not working correctly, the evaporative canister can develop into saturated and vent hydrocarbons into the atmosphere.
Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) Gasoline whose composition has been changed, from that of gasolines bought in 1990, to (1) embrace oxygenates, (2) cut back the content material of olefins, aromatics and volatile elements, and (three) scale back the content material of heavy hydrocarbons to meet performance specs for ozone-forming tendency and for launch of toxic substances (benzene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, 1,three-butadiene, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) into the air from both evaporation and tailpipe emissions.
Renewable Power Vitality obtained from sources which can be essentially inexhaustible, unlike fossil fuels. It includes standard hydro-electric, wooden, bio-feedstocks, waste, geothermal, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal power.
Respirable Combustible Dust (RCD) A way of measuring ambient DPM exposures utilizing a combustion process. Utilized in underground mines in Canada.
Rotary Injection Pump A lower-value injection pump used with pump-line-nozzle programs. The pump has a central plunger system (often consisting of two opposing plungers) that gives gasoline to every cylinder during the required injection interval. A plate situated near the top of the pump rotates, opening an appropriate orifice at the proper time for distribution to each cylinder’s injection nozzle via a separate line. It is normally used with automotive or agricultural engines that have lower performance and durability requirements than the heavy-duty truck diesels.