Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a gasoline oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings. House heating oil is commonly abbreviated as HHO.
Heating oil consists of a mixture of petroleum-derived hydrocarbons within the 14- to 20-carbon atom vary that condense between 250 and 350 °C (482 and 662 °F) during oil refining. Heating oil condenses at a decrease temperature than petroleum jelly, bitumen, candle wax, and lubricating oil, but at a better temperature than kerosene, which condenses between 160-250 °C (320-482 °F). The heavy (C20+) hydrocarbons condense between 340-400 °C (644-752 °F).
Heating oil produces 138,500 British thermal models per US gallon (38.6 MJ/l) and weighs 8.2 pounds per US gallon (zero.Ninety five kg/l). Number 2 fuel oil has a flash level of 52 °C (126 °F).
Most heating oil products are chemically very similar to diesel fuel used as motor fuel. In lots of markets heating oil and on-highway diesel fuels are the identical product sold out of the same truck in route labeled as either heating oil or dyed diesel respectively dependent on the particular person ordering product. The authorized difference between diesel and heating oil within the United States is sulfur allowance. Diesel for equipment and gear should be below 15ppm sulfur content while heating oil should be below 500 ppm sulfur. Which means the 2 can often be efficiently interchanged for heating or boiler systems. Nonetheless, the taxation of the two differs in many locations, with heating oil being taxed less than motor gasoline. This creates an incentive to purchase heating oil at a lower worth after which use it as motor gasoline, avoiding the gas tax. To make enforcement attainable, some visible distinction or odor difference must be introduced to the oil. Therefore, pink dyes are usually added, ensuing within the “crimson diesel” name in nations just like the United Kingdom. Within the U.S. the gas oil dyed red is not taxed for freeway use; the dye makes it easy to establish its use in on-street autos (whereas diesel fuel sold for motor gasoline use is usually green). Since 2002, Solvent Yellow 124 has been added as a “Euromarker” in the European Union.
Heating oil is often delivered by tank truck to residential, industrial and municipal buildings and saved in above-floor storage tanks (“ASTs”) situated in the basements, garages, or exterior adjoining to the constructing. It is generally stored in underground storage tanks (or “USTs”) but much less often than ASTs. ASTs are used for smaller installations because of the lower cost factor. Heating oil is much less commonly used as an industrial gasoline or for energy generation.
Leaks from tanks and piping are an environmental concern. Varied federal and state rules are in place relating to the correct transportation, storage and burning of heating oil, which is labeled as a hazardous material (HazMat) by federal regulators.
1 United States and Canada
2 Republic of Ireland and Northern Eire
three England, Scotland and Wales three.1 Heating oil storage rules within the United Kingdom
United States and Canada
Heating oil is understood in the United States as No. 2 heating oil. In the U.S., it should conform to ASTM normal D396. Diesel and kerosene, while often confused as being related or identical, should conform to their own respective ASTM requirements. Heating oil is widely utilized in both the United States and Canada. Within the United States, Biodiesel blends of B5 (5% biodiesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel) can be found in most markets as a lower CO2 and cleaner burning heating gasoline.
The heating oil futures contract trades in models of 1,000 barrels (160 m3) with a minimal fluctuation of $zero.0001 per gallon and (for the USA) is based on delivery in New York Harbor.[Four]
The Division of Power tracks the prices homeowners pay for home heating gas (oil and propane). There are also a quantity of internet sites that permit residence owners to compare the price per gallon they are paying with the Department of Power information in addition to different consumers of their space. Likewise the US Power Data Administration collects heating oil worth statistics and maintains historical price information for all main US markets during each heating season. The US Department of Power also supports analysis and growth for heating oil technology by way of the National Oilheat Analysis Alliance. Extra details about biodiesel heating oil use can also be found at the Nationwide Biodiesel Board’s site.
Heating oil is generally used in the northeastern and northwestern city United States and a strong market presence in rural areas as effectively. Most of the northeast’s heating oil coming from Irving Oil’s refinery in Saint John, New Brunswick, the most important oil refinery in Canada. Unlike other petroleum products, heating oil is primarily distributed to shoppers by family-owned small companies, moderately than the large oil firms. Although United States distributors present the Department of Power the average price per gallon for his or her customers, they usually do not list their costs on comparability websites, as an alternative preferring to supply quotes which best match the property.
Republic of Eire and Northern Eire
Heating oil is the commonest fuel for residence heating in Northern Eire because of the late improvement of a natural gasoline community. Widespread suppliers of heating oil in Ireland are Maxol and Emo Oil.
England, Scotland and Wales
Heating oil is used for home heating in England, Scotland and Wales, typically in premises away from mains gas. There are around 1.5 million folks in Nice Britain using oil for home heating. Great Britain has many suppliers of heating oil ranging from giant corporations resembling Conquest Oil Company and Crown Oil to native and unbiased heating oil suppliers corresponding to J. R. Rix & Sons. Many villages might use shopping for teams to order heating oil at the same time, thereby accessing decrease prices. Many heating oil suppliers will select to checklist their prices on impartial heating oil value comparison web sites. These websites draw in residence heating oil users and evaluate varied native provider prices so as to offer the bottom worth accessible. In the UK and Northern Ireland, it is feasible to seek for costs by town title, county and postcode prefix.
The Division of Power and Climate Change (DECC) have referred the UK oil market to the Office of Truthful Buying and selling (OFT) for assessment. The OFT has resolved to look at the construction of the market, with a view of the fairness for shoppers and alternative power choices for off-grid customers akin to heat pumps.
Heating oil storage rules in the United Kingdom
Heating oil storage in the United Kingdom is governed by rules which make sure the protected installation and usage of oil storage tanks. It is a criminal offence to maintain a tank that violates these laws, and the homeowners are liable for fines, penalties and any costs incurred on account of cleansing up oil spills.
The rules are designed to minimise the chance of damaging pollution and reduce the chance of oil being saved in hazardous environments, comparable to a building with out correct fire security measures. The regulations which govern oil storage tanks are The Management of Pollution (Oil Storage) England Regulations (2001), The Pollution Prevention Tips (PPG 2) and The Constructing Laws (Accredited Document J).
The Oil Storage Rules (2001) apply to oil tanks used for commercial and industrial functions, or domestic tanks over 3500 litres in capacity. They state that the storage tank ought to be of “ample energy and structural integrity to ensure that it is unlikely to burst or leak in its peculiar use”. The tank, together with any filters, gauges, valves or ancillary equipment, have to be contained inside a secondary unit or bund which has at the very least one hundred ten% of the capability of the inner tank. If the tank has a fill pipe that’s not contained throughout the secondary unit, a drip tray have to be put in. In addition they require the usage of an computerized overfill prevention if it’s not “reasonably practical” to watch the oil levels throughout the tank.
The Building Laws Permitted Document J covers the legal requirements for the installation of the tanks within the premises of a constructing. The regulations state that any new tank larger than 2,500 litres should be saved inside a bunded tank or secondary containment that could be a minimum of a hundred and ten% of the tank’s capability. If a tank is single skinned and smaller than 2,500 litres, it should be given a person site pollution risk evaluation. This highlights any pollution or hazard dangers equivalent to the potential of the oil escaping and reaching a river or stream, or the danger of a collision if the storage tank is situated near a street.
They further state that every one tanks must be installed on a floor sturdy enough to help a full storage tank. The surface must be flat, even and fireplace-resistance, and may lengthen a minimum of 300mm past the boundaries of the tank. A paving stone floor have to be at the very least 42mm thick, and a concrete floor have to be not less than 100mm thick. The document additionally states that the tank should be situated a minimum of 1800mm away from any potential hazards, corresponding to doorways, windows, appliance flue terminals, non-fireplace rated buildings akin to garden fences, and at the very least 760mm from non-fire rated smaller structures corresponding to wood fences.[Eleven]
A protected, secure tank that complies with all laws will look much like the diagram above. It particulars the different parts of the tank that have to be checked to be able to make sure the tank is authorized, including the place the ancillary gear must be situated and the presence of an computerized overfill prevention.
The degree day system is predicated on the quantity of fuel a buyer has consumed between two or extra deliveries and the high and low outdoor temperatures during the identical interval. A level day is defined as one degree of temperature below 65 °F in the average temperature of one day. In different words, to arrive at the variety of diploma days in at some point, the official excessive and low temperatures for that day should be obtained. The two figures are then averaged, and the variety of models this average is under sixty five °F is the variety of degree days for that day. For example, if for Tuesday, three November, the high temperature is 70 °F and the low is 54 °F, the common is discovered by including 70 and 54, which equals 124, after which dividing by 2. The resultant determine is 62, and by subtracting sixty two from sixty five, it is set that there have been three Fahrenheit diploma days that day.
The Okay issue is the number of diploma days in any given interval divided by the variety of gallons of gasoline oil utilized in a given interval. Multiplying K degree-days per gallon by the number of gallon of usable gasoline remaining in a tank offers the variety of diploma-days before a supply is required.
Central oil storage
Gas worth risk management
Heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC)
– United States: New England Gasoline Institute
Northeast House Heating Oil Reserve
^ Client Council for Northern Eire
^ North American Combustion Handbook
^ “House Heating Oil Incessantly Asked Questions”. www.StarOilco.net/Heating-Oil/. November 22, 2017.
^ New York Harbor No. 2 Heating Oil, CME Group
^ “Heating Oil Futures – historic data”. Investing.com. Retrieved sixteen March 2017.