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Introduction Refinery Processes and Operations Historic Overview Product Demand and Supply Petroleum Production Display U.S. Statistics World Statistics Industry Characteristics Refinery Economics Value Estimation Refinery Complexity Refinery Circulate Scheme and Chapter in the fractional distillation of crude oil hydrocarbons are separated based on Outline Refinery Merchandise Low-Boiling Merchandise Gasoline Gasoline Specifications Distillate Fuels Residual Gasoline Oils Refinery Feedstocks Crude Oil Properties Composition of Petroleum Crudes Appropriate for Asphalt Manufacture Crude Distillation Desalting Crude Oils Atmospheric Topping Unit Vacuum Distillation Auxiliary Tools Crude Distillation Unit Products Case-Study Downside: Crude Models Coking and Thermal Processes Varieties, Properties, and Makes use of of Petroleum Coke Process Description-Delayed Coking Operation-Delayed Coking Course of Description-Flexicoking Process Description-Fluid Coking Yields from Flexicoking and Fluid Coking Capital Prices and Utilities for Flexicoking and Fluid Coking Visbreaking Case-Research Problem: Delayed Coker Catalytic Cracking Fluidized Mattress Catalytic Cracking New Designs for Fluidized Mattress Catalytic Cracking Models Cracking Reactions Cracking of Paraffins Olefin Cracking Cracking of Naphthenic Hydrocarbons Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cracking Cracking Catalysts FCC Feed Pretreating Process Variables Heat Restoration Yield Estimation Capital and Operating Prices Case-Research Problem: Catalytic Cracker Catalytic Hydrocracking Hydrocracking Reactions Feed Preparation The Hydrocracking Course of Hydrocracking Catalyst Course of Variables Hydrocracking Yields Investment and Working Prices Modes of Hydrocracker Operation Case-Study Problem: Hydrocracker Hydroprocessing and Resid Processing Composition of Vacuum Tower Bottoms Processing Options Hydroprocessing Expanded-Bed Hydrocracking Processes Moving-Mattress Hydroprocessors Solvent Extraction Abstract of Resid Processing Operations Hydrotreating Hydrotreating Catalysts Aromatics Reduction Reactions Process Variables Development and Operating Prices Case-Examine Drawback: Hydrotreaters Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization Reactions Feed Preparation Catalytic Reforming Processes Reforming Catalyst Reactor Design Yields and Prices Isomerization Capital and Working Prices Isomerization Yields Case-Research Downside: Naphtha Hydrotreater, Catalytic Reformer, and Isomerization Unit Alkylation and Polymerization Alkylation Reactions Process Variables Alkylation Feedstocks Alkylation Merchandise Catalysts Hydrofluoric Acid Processes Sulfuric Acid Alkylation Processes Comparability of Processes Alkylation Yields and Prices Security Points Polymerization Case-Study Drawback: Alkylation and Polymerization Product Mixing Reid Vapor Stress Octane Blending Blending for Other Properties Case-Research Drawback: Gasoline Blending Octane Calculations for Pool Gasoline Case-Study Drawback: Diesel and Jet Gasoline Mixing Supporting Processes Hydrogen Production and Purification Gas Processing Unit Acid Gas Elimination Sulfur Recovery Processes Ecological Issues in Petroleum Refining Wastewater Treatment Control of Atmospheric Pollution Noise Level Management Case-Study Downside: Saturated in the fractional distillation of crude oil hydrocarbons are separated based on Gas Restoration, Amine, and Sulfur Restoration Units Refinery Economics in the fractional distillation of crude oil hydrocarbons are separated based on and Planning Linear Programming Overview Refinery Linear Programming Fashions Economics and Planning Applications Lubricating Oil Blending Stocks Lube Oil Processing Propane Deasphalting Viscosity Index Enchancment and Solvent Extraction Viscosity Index Improvement and Hydrocracking Dewaxing Hydrofinishing Ending by Clay Contacting Environmental Impacts Petrochemical Feedstocks Aromatics Production Unsaturate Production Saturated Paraffins Additives Production from Refinery Feedstocks Use of Alcohols and Ethers Ether Manufacturing Reactions Ether Manufacturing Processes Yields Costs for Ether Production Production of Isobutylene Commercial Dehydrogenation Processes Houdry’s CATOFIN ConocoPhillips Petroleum’s Star UOP LLC OLEFLEX Snamprogetti Yarsintez Course of Costs to supply Isobutylene from Isobutane International Union of Pure and Applied Chemists Nomenclature Isooctene and Isooctane Manufacturing Price Estimation Rule-of-Thumb Estimates Cost-Curve Estimates Major Tools Issue Estimates Definitive Estimates Summary Form for Cost Estimates Storage Services Land and Storage Necessities Steam Methods Cooling Water Systems Different Utility Techniques Software of Value Estimation Methods Financial Evaluation Definitions Return on Original Funding Payout Time Discounted Cash Move Charge of Return Case-Examine Problem: Economic Analysis Case-Examine Drawback: Economic Resolution Appendix A: Definitions of Refining Terms Appendix B: Bodily Properties Appendix C: U.S.