occidental petroleum interview questions online, natural gas partners

natural gas prices down, occidental petroleum interview questions online,Petroleum refining refers to the process of converting crude oil into useful products.

Pure Dyes: Their Historical past And Learn how to Make Them

HubPages»
Arts and Design»
Crafts pigments from leaves, fruits, seeds, wooden and roots have been used as dye stuffs for textiles and as a paint in art and craft. The discovery of synthetic dyes led to a breakdown of the pure dye market and, in consequence, cultivation of dye plants got here to a standstill.
Pure dyes, made from plants, animals and shells provide important alternatives to petrochemical-based mostly dyes and, if harvesting is fastidiously managed, supply environmental and social benefits; as compared with synthetic dyes, pure dyes have large variations in colour tone, because of the standard variations of various provenances of the dye plant. They obviously require longer, slower dyeing treatments to realize good coloration, particularly for vegetable fibers, making the method more costly than dyeing with synthetics. The synthetics are low cost and straightforward to use, rapidly, up to now century, they supplanted the natural dyes for business dyeing. One of the the explanation why chemical dyes are appropriate for business functions is that the cloth from each dye bath can be virtually equivalent in color; one of many pleasures of dyeing with herbs is that no two baths will ever give exactly the identical results, there will at all times be a component of surprise, with variations based on the season, the weather, the maturity of the plant, its place within the sun or shade and the quality of the water used for dyeing.
Yet the higher value, delicate color variation and higher calls for on time signifies that natural dye know-how has a specific cachet and quality that works nicely in specialist production. In actual fact, over the last few years synthetic dyes have been shedding good reputation because of the risk of toxicity, adverse affect on the environment and high allergic potential. Consequently, an increasing demand have naturally developed. Really, no chemical dye can achieve fairly the depth and lustre of many plant dyes; the wealthy and delicate variations of tone and colour derived from plants might mellow and soften with time however never will lose their natural harmony.

Historical past of the pure dyes
The occidental petroleum interview questions online usage of colorants dates again thousands of years in all societies across the globe. Even earlier than individuals started to spin yarn and weave cloth, they applied colored earth, plant saps and juices on to their pores and skin: this was the primary kind of cosmetics. Ladies in Mediterranean area applied alkanet as rouge and lipstick and used chamomile and henna to dye their hair. Indians in Soth America ready a paste of annato seeds for painting their bodies. Making use of dyes to fibers and fabrics is extra complicated than simply utilizing plant to stain the pores and skin, but all through history, people have developed techniques of dyeing.
Among the historic peoples, the Egyptians of the Center kingdom not solely dyed textiles but also understood the use of mordants (metallic salts with an affinity for both fibers and dyestuffs that improved the colorfastness of certain dyes) as it is described by Pliny the Elder: “In Egypt they dye clothing in a remarkable manner. The white materials is treated not with colors, but with mineral compounds which absorb the colors. This executed, the materials appear unchanged, but when immersed in a cauldron of boiling dye and immediately removed, they are coloured. It is exceptional that though the dye in the cauldron is of 1 coloration solely, the materials when taken out are of assorted colours, in line with the standard of the mineral compounds applied, and it can’t afterwards be washed out.”
The Phoenician dye trade, begun in 15th century BC, was renowned for its Tyrian purple, or royal purple obtained from a species of shellfish processed in the city of Tyre, which actually produced a range of colors from crimson to blue, icluding violet.The Greek physician Dioscorides and the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder, each writing in the primary century, described sources of dyes and dyeing techniques known in those days, they talked about several of the dye plants, together with indigo and woad for blue, alkanet and madder for crimson, weld and saffron for yellow, and oak bark and walnut hulls for golds and browns.
India, the country whose dyeing practices have exercised the greatest influence on European dyers from the 16th century, appears to have had a dye trade long earlier than its transactions had been recorded in writing, maybe extending to the period of the Indus Valley civilization ca 2500 BC. Dyers in India and southeast Asia not only mastered the artwork of producing vibrant colors on cotton (no mean feat), but also developed techniques for printing colours on woven fabric and making designs with resisting dyeing. Marco Polo described intimately its indigo manufacture in the course of the 13th century Ad, about three hundred years earlier than the Portuguese introduced it to Europe.
Our main dyeplants, along with our staple foodstuffs and an unlimited dispensary of medicinal plants, were all recognized hundreds of years ago. Most fashionable individuals, who shop for meals and medicine in supermarkets and purchase their clothes already colored, are relatively unaware of the plants of their neighborhoods; if they think about them in any respect, they feel bewildered by all of the completely different kinds of grasses, herbs, bushes and trees, and can’t imagine how anyone may ever inform one from another. Earlier generations of people had a deeper love for the surroundings and explored it very totally. So they discovered which plants were nourishing and which have been poisonous, which contained fibers, which offered dyes, which had been narcotic. Sooner or later, they discovered all the good stuff: for instance, the blue pigment indigo is invisibly current in several completely completely different sorts of plants, but historic dyers discovered these diversified sources and realized to extract indigo and use it as a dye.
Colours often play roles more vital than mere decoration or ornament: they function cultural symbols. Different colours may be related to cosmic and religious forces, with standing and class, with illness and health. Some beliefs about colour persist: brides wear with and widows black, baby boys put on blue and child girls put on pink, Halloween colors are orange and black and so on. In societies extra governed by tradition, guidelines for using particular colors had been far more strict; alternative dyes from rare sources had been reserved for the garments of the kings or priests; some colours of clothing have been believed to guard the wearer from earthly pests and diseases or from supernatural forces: many societies have connected robust significance to colours.

Plants and colours
The color that a dyeplant produces is dependent upon the season in which the plant is picked and this as a result of many elements influence the result of any given harvest of plant materials, elements which embody: soil fertility, moisture provide, temperature and day length. Essentially the most intense colours are given by plants in full bloom where the flowering parts are used for dyeing. Early spring is the very best time for amassing bark from timber; there is no want to break off your entire branches or to trigger unnecessary harm to the tree: simply, in springtime, when the timber are being pruned, the cuttings might be picked up. Nuts must be gathered from the ground as soon as possible after they have fallen. So, different parts of the same plant will comprise completely different amounts of pigments, and the pigment content material varies at completely different levels within the plant’s life cycle. As examples: madder plants grown in rich, barely alkaline soil give more purple dye; woas leaves harvested when the plant is in bloom have misplaced most of their potential to present blue and so on.
If all else fails, dried plants may be bought at some stores that sell wool for spinning and dyeing. Nevertheless, plants give their greatest dye if they are used immediately after being picked: the color will change if a plant is dried after which used at a later date; moreover, some plants cannot be saved at all (equivalent to dandelions, horsetail, goldenrod, carrot tops etc.)
One simple manner of figuring out if a plant will dye wool is to rub elements of it between your fingers: if a coloured poweder comes off, the plant in all probability will produce a good dye.
The brown dyes could be obtained from the bark of apple, birch, hemlock, hickory and maple tree; yellow from a large number of sources resembling arsemart, white ash bark, barberry bark, sassafras, lichens, camomile flowers, and coffee beans; reds from madder, cochineal, Brazilwood and alkanet; blues from woad, chemic, orchil and cudbear, as well as from the favored indigo; and blacks mostly made from logwood and soot. Additionally there is the chance of mixing any of these by top-dyeing.
Flowers, leaves, stems and bark, seeds and fruits, and wood assume their characteristic colors as a result of they include naturally coloured compounds known as pigments; biochemists have recognized hundreds of different pigments produced by plants. Why are there so many It is recognized that some pigments play essential roles, but the biological significance of most pigments continues to be a thriller. Not all pigments serve as dyes. Some pigments will not dissolve in water, some dissolve properly and make a brightly coloured solution but haven’t any affinity for fibers, some others, after dyeing, promptly fade away and a few lose their colour after they react with oxygen in the air, particularly in the presence of sunlight. So, although there are lots of coloured substances in plants, there are solely two or three dozen pigments of lasting worth to weavers.

To learn extra:
The Art and Craft of Pure Dyeing: Traditional Recipes for modern Use Purchase Now Wild Shade: The entire Information to making and Using Natural Dyes Purchase Now The complete Guide To Pure Dyeing Purchase Now Pure Dyes Buy Now Handbook of Pure Colorants Purchase Now A Dyer’s Backyard: From Plant to Pot, Rising Dyes for Natural Fibers Purchase Now Dyes from American Native Plants: A Practical Guide Purchase Now Methods to make the natural dyes for clothes
The first step in dyeing, after gathering the plant materials, is to get the shade out of the plants and right into a pan of water. Some plants require particular procedures, but normally, it’s a easy matter that can be easily reassumed so:
1) Shed contemporary, gentle plant elements, reminiscent of flowers and leaves, right into a pan, cover with water, and simmer for half hour to an hour, until the water is colored and the tissues look bleached out. If the flowers or leaves have been dried, soak for several hours or in a single day after which simmer in the same water.
2) Press down on juicy fruits or berries to interrupt the skins, then cover with water and add a little bit vinegar. Soak a few days at room temeprature for best results.
3) Chop or grind exhausting materials, reminiscent of roots, bark or nut hulls, into chips: the smaller the chips, the better the dye flows (a hand-cranked flour mill or meat grinder works effectively). After grinding, soak the chips or meal for a few days, then heat and simmer for an hour or extra.
After, I usually favor to make a dyebath and filter it via a mesh strainer, then add the fibers to the filtered liquid. Do not forget that the dyebath focus may be weak or strong, depending on totally different elements. dry dyestuff are extra concentrated than recent materials. However understanding exactly how much dyestuff to make use of is partly a matter of following recipes and partly a matter of expertise. If the first batch of fibers dyes to a great darkish colour, you may enter, second, third and successive lots of fibers and get progressively paler shades, this offers a lovely sequence of coordinated colours starting from vivid to pastel…very much like creating colours for painting, is not
After, one should management the pH of the dyebath because it is very important, as it affects the colors that shall be produced. Some plants pigments dissolve much better in acidic than fundamental options, and vice versa. Some pigments change even shade in several solutions!
Historically, dyers have added varied substances to dyebath solutions to acquire one of the best outcomes with explicit plants- all are natural additives that trigger not any harm to the surroundings, opposite to the family chemicals. As alkaline additives, can be utilized: stale urine and dung, wood and plant ashes, lye and chalk; for acid additives, can be utilized: vinegar, bitter wine, fermented fruit juices, sour milk, rhubarb, sorrel leaves and tree leaves and bark containing tannins.
Most plant dyes give better results if used in combination with a mordant; early dyers realized that a mordant allows the dye to get a greater bite on the fibres, because mordants increase the uptake of dye on the fibers, giving brighter, deeper colors, they enhance the dye’s fastness to mild and washing they usually can also increase the range of colours which may be obtained from a single dye plant. Here a short list of the most well-liked mordants:
-Aluminium: a few plants are sources of aluminium and can be utilized as natural mordants; these embody membership mosses, leaves of the sweetleaf tree and its tropical kinfolk, and tea leaves.
-Lichens: they can be used as a pre-mordant, and they supply pale floor colors on which might be added after others colors to get a gentle pastel coloration. (By the best way, they produce additionally a beautiful aroma).
-Salt: it is a bath additive and enhance the fastness, however it needs to be firstly dissolved in boiling water.
-Vinegar: it may very well be used both as a bath additive or as pre or put up- dye therapy; if used as a bath additive, it’s going to lowers the pH, and if used fro pre and publish dye remedy, it shifts colors (a coloration like magenta, as example, will shift to deep rose). Plus, weak acetic acid like vinegar will assist keep your wool from degrading.
-Chalk: it is essential for the production of a good brilliant yellow, or fantastic pink with madder; it improves generally the colour. It is likely one of the few that does not need to be boiled first, it must be added to bath at the end of the heating.
Different natural mordants iclude: birch, oak (particularly black oak soaked in standing water for 2 years), currants and gooseberries (acidic mordants that may help make colors more everlasting); hardwood or cedar bark ashes, feminine dock root (to realize deeper colours).

Related
Easter Eggs top:75px” class=”thumbphoto”>BotanyDye Plants I: The Extremely Coveted Madder Red
by Paulo Cabrita0

Fashion and BeautyHow to Make Your personal Pure, Nontoxic, Vegan Hair Dye at Dwelling
by classicalgeek1
Hair Dyes9 Natural Hair Dyes For Hair Coloring
by VioletteRose10

Fashionable
TextilesKnifty Knitter Blue Round Loom Patterns
by hsschulte24
TextilesLearn To Knit With Knitting Looms
by Itaya Lightbourne68

CrochetingFree Crochet Infinity Scarf Patterns
by Barbara Badder12
Comments
Submit a CommentYou Should Check in To CommentTo comment on this article, you must register or sign up and submit utilizing a HubPages Community account.

AuthorVarenya 7 years ago
Many thanks, Dolores, in your nice comments!!!

In creating natural dyes for homemade soap, you possibly can make use of a far higher number of herbs and plants. In this hub, I’ve remembered only those which can be notably fit for fabrics and then the potential for choice must be restricted to virtually three dozen plants. In homemade cleaning soap you can let free your inspiration and add additionally some medicative energy to your cleaning soap (as for example, if you employ chamomile for yellow dye!).

Really glad that you’ve got enjoyed the reading!!!
Dolores Monet 7 years ago from East Coast, United States

What an exquisite hub on pure dyes. I am at all times in search of concepts to create colours for homemade soap. While this hub appears extra about dyes for fabrics, I definitely occidental petroleum interview questions online loved it as effectively as the gorgeous footage. Awesome!

If you adored this post and you would certainly such as to get even more information concerning Refinery kindly see the webpage.