Refining: From Crude Oil To Petroleum Products
Different types of crude oilOil that has not been refined. look totally different: some are black and viscous, others are brown and fluid. But none of petroleum definition geography them can be used as is in automobile engines, boilers or manufacturing units. They first have to be converted into various completed products by way of refining All industrial processes used to obtain varied petroleum merchandise, petroleum definition geography resembling gas, gasoline, heating oil and asphalt, from crude oil. (See Close-Up: “Why Crude Oil Must be Refined”).
Everyone seems to be acquainted with the names of most of those merchandise: gasoline (known as petrol in some countries) and dieselDiesel is the identify of an internal combustion engine that works by compression-ignition… are fuels for automobiles and trucks; jet fuelFuel is any strong, liquid or gaseous substance or material that can be combined with an oxidant… powers aircraft; liquefied petroleum gas (LPG)Combination of light hydrocarbons produced partly from the refining of crude oil (about 40%) and partly from the processing of natural fuel.. , also known as butane and propane, is an automotive gasoline or is packaged in bottles and used for household needs; gas oil is utilized in home and industrial boilers; base oils are used to provide lubricants; and asphaltAt ambient temperature, a sticky, black and highly viscous or strong mixture of heavy hydrocarbons… (or bitumen) is used to pave roads. There is also naphtha, which is the primary feedstock for petrochemicals (See Feature Report: “Petrochimicals and Plastics”).
Crude oil is converted into petroleum merchandise in a number of steps in refineries (See Shut-Up: “The Three Phases of Refining”). The first is atmospheric distillation at 350 to 400°C. The crude oil vapors rise inside the column, whereas the heaviest molecules remain at the underside. The heavy residues are distilled once more in another column.
After separation, the next step is conversion at a temperature of 500°C. Processes include catalytic cracking and hydrocrackingRefining process that converts heavy hydrocarbons into lighter, low-sulfur products within the presence of hydrogen. , which “crack” the molecules that are nonetheless too heavy, producing fuel, gasoline and diesel. Then molecules which might be corrosive or trigger air pollution, such as sulfur, are eliminated.
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