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The Refinery Process

The refining course of begins with crude oil. Crude oil is unrefined liquid petroleum, petroleum equipment jobs victoria which ranges in color from yellow to black, and may have a paraffin, asphalt or mixed base. Crude oil is composed of hundreds of various chemical compounds known as hydrocarbons, all with totally different boiling Coal factors. For example, a typical crude oil could start to boil at 104° F to produce petroleum gasoline used for heating and making plastics, petroleum equipment jobs victoria and finish boiling at better than 1112° F to supply residuals similar to petroleum coke, asphalt and tar.

Crude oil is generally described as candy or sour based on its sulfur content, and heavy or gentle based on its API Gravity. The API Gravity index is a relative measure of weight-the lower the number, the heavier the fabric; the upper the number, the lighter the material. petroleum equipment jobs victoria Whereas there are no exacting definitions for some of these crudes, a common rule of thumb is:

– A heavy crude is lower than 30°API, whereas a gentle crude is greater than 30°API.
– If crude accommodates a sizable quantity of sulfur or sulfur compounds, it known as sour crude; if it has little to no sulfur, it’s candy crude. Sour crude might comprise 1%-5% sulfur content, while sweet crudes will have lower than 1% sulfur content material.

Refining Course of Definitions
Coker Unit: processes vacuum resid, which is heated to over 900° F and put into the coke drums, the place it undergoes thermal cracking because the oil decomposes under the excessive heat. Merchandise embody butane and lighter material, naphtha for Reforming, turbine and diesel fuel, fuel oil for Cat Cracking, and fuel grade petroleum coke.

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