why do we use natural gas energy, petrochemical industries company ksc

new energy car, why do we use natural gas energy,Petroleum Refinery Equipments, Wholesale Various High Quality Petroleum Refinery Equipments Products.

Prehistoric Code Present in Clay Balls From Mesopotamia Could Symbolize First Information Storage System

Researchers studying clay balls from Mesopotamia have discovered clues to a lost code that was used for report-preserving about 200 years earlier than writing was invented.

The clay balls may represent the world’s “very first data storage system,” a minimum of the primary that scientists know of, stated Christopher Woods, a professor on the University of Chicago’s Oriental Institute, in a lecture at Toronto’s Royal Ontario Museum, the place he offered preliminary findings.

The balls, usually called “envelopes” by researchers, have been sealed and comprise tokens in a variety of geometric shapes — the balls varying from golf ball-dimension to baseball-measurement. Only about a why do we use natural gas energy hundred and fifty intact examples survive worldwide as we speak. [See Images of the Clay Balls & Misplaced Code]

The researchers used high-decision CT scans and 3D modeling to look inside greater than 20 examples that were excavated at the positioning of Choga Mish, in western Iran, within the late 1960s. They were created about 5,500 years ago at a time when early cities were flourishing in Mesopotamia.

Researchers have lengthy believed these clay balls have been used to file economic transactions. That interpretation is based on an analysis of a 3,300-12 months-outdated clay ball discovered at a site in Mesopotamia named Nuzi that had 49 pebbles and a cuneiform textual content containing a contract commanding a shepherd to care for 49 sheep and goats.

How these gadgets would have labored in prehistoric instances, before the invention of writing, is a mystery. Researchers now face the query of how folks recorded the quantity and kind of a commodity being exchanged without the assistance of writing.

Peering inside
The CT scans revealed that a few of the balls have tiny channels, 1-2 millimeters (less than one-tenth of an inch) across, crisscrossing them. Woods mentioned he isn’t certain what they were used for, but speculates the balls contained advantageous threads that related collectively on the surface. These threads may have held labels, maybe made out of why do we use natural gas energy wax, which mirrored the tokens inside the clay balls.

The tokens inside the balls are available in 14 completely different shapes, together with spheres, pyramids, ovoids, lenses and cones, the researchers found. Somewhat than representing complete words, these shapes would have conveyed numbers connected to a wide range of metrological systems utilized in counting different types of commodities, Woods steered. One ovoid, for instance, may imply a certain unit, say 10, which was used while counting a certain kind of commodity.

The researchers, nevertheless, had been perplexed when their CT scans found one clay ball containing tokens manufactured from a low-density material, probably bitumen, a petroleum substance. “After we make a three-dimensional model of the cavity you get this very strange amoeba like-looking shape,” Woods said throughout the lecture.

The tokens, in this instance, had air bubbles around them, suggesting they were wrapped in cloth earlier than being put within the ball, the cloth disintegrating over time. In addition, it appears that a liquid, doubtless liquid bitumen, was poured over the tokens after they had been inserted into the balls. What somebody was making an attempt to speak by creating such tokens is unknown.

“That’s a thriller,” Woods informed LiveScience in an interview. “I don’t actually have a good reply for that,” he stated, including that the bitumen tokens could symbolize a divergent accounting follow, or, perhaps even, that the transaction recorded concerned bitumen.

In historic Mesopotamia bitumen was used as an adhesive and to waterproof issues like baskets, boats and the foundations of buildings, Woods said. [In Pictures: Treasures from Mesopotamia]

Cracking the prehistoric code
All of the clay balls include, on the skin, one “equatorial” seal (running by means of the center) and quite often two “polar” seals, running above and under.

The equatorial seals are usually unique and extra complicated containing what look like mythological motifs; for instance a ball from the Louvre Museum reveals human figures combating what seem like serpents. The polar seals, alternatively, are repeated extra typically and are likely to have less complicated geometric motifs.

Based mostly on this proof, Woods hypothesizes the seal within the center represents the “buyer” or recipient; the polar seals would symbolize the “vendor” or distributor and maybe third parties who would have participated within the transaction or acted as witnesses.

The data researchers have obtained about clay balls found in Mesopotamia may make it potential, in time, to crack the prehistoric code hidden inside.

Many people would have acted because the consumers, however only a limited number of sellers or distributors would have been round to transact business with, explaining why the polar seals are repeated more usually.

After a transaction of some significance was complete, one of those clay devices was created to serve as a “receipt” of types for the vendor, as a record of what was expended. “There is a greater necessity to keep observe of things which were expended than things which might be on hand,” Woods mentioned within the lecture.

Deciphering what transaction each clay ball represented is a trickier problem. Woods suspects the tokens symbolize numbers and metrical units. It is doable that, by means of the completely different token shapes, people in prehistoric instances communicated numbers and models in a way just like how the primary scribes did 200 years later when writing was invented. If that is the case, Woods and other scientists may be ready, in time, to crack the code by uncovering how token types cluster and range.

“If they are, then there may be at least some hope of deciphering the envelopes and with it uncovering the earliest proof for advanced numerical literacy,” Woods stated.

Technological achievement
The quantity of element the scientists gleaned from the CT scans and 3D modeling was extraordinary, Woods mentioned throughout the lecture. “We can study more about these artifacts by non-destructive testing than we may by bodily opening the envelopes,” he said.

Woods will publish the full research outcomes in the future and plans to place the photographs and 3D models on-line.

To peer contained in the balls Woods labored with Jeffrey Diehm, who arranged for them to be CT scanned on a state-of-the-artwork industrial scanner (which is best fitted to this work than a medical model), and Jim Topich, who had the CT pictures transformed into detailed, dissectible, 3D models. Diehm was with North Star Imaging in Minnesota at the time the scans have been accomplished in 2011 (he’s now the managing director of Avonix Imaging) and Topich is director of engineering and design at Kinetic Vision in Cincinnati.

The Royal Ontario Museum has a special exhibition on Mesopotamia that runs to Jan. 5, 2014. Woods’ presentation is part of a lecture series that’s appearing together with it.

Observe us @livescience, Fb & Google+. Authentic article on LiveScience.